Development Trend of High Strength Fasteners and General Parts
China's mechanical fasteners and general parts market sales have ranked in the forefront of the world, China has become a major manufacturing country of basic parts. At present, the main problems of the industry development are that the industry is large but not strong, and the structural contradictions are prominent. Faced with opportunities and challenges, the lagging development of basic parts and components has attracted great attention of the state.
1. After years of development, the industry of general mechanical parts and components has formed a large-scale, well-categorized and solid-based industry: there are tens of thousands of enterprises of general mechanical parts and components in China, and more than 5000 enterprises of above-scale production, of which about 200 are the main backbone enterprises, with annual sales exceeding 25 billion yuan and exports exceeding 7 billion dollars. This is the case. The sales volume of China's general mechanical parts market has ranked among the top in the world, and China has become a major manufacturing country of basic parts.
2. Industrial technology has been significantly improved, and market competitiveness has been further enhanced: the annual average growth rate has been maintained for many years, the industrial technology has been significantly improved, the product structure has been continuously optimized and improved, and the domestic and foreign markets have developed strongly. The domestic market share has reached about 85%. It provides most of the accessories for military projects. The independent matching ability of major technical equipment has been significantly improved. The import and export volume has increased substantially, with an average annual export growth rate of 30%. It has become a major exporter of mechanical and electrical products, and its international competitiveness has been further enhanced. The total import and export value of general components has become the main body of the total import and export value of the large industry of mechanical basic components. Its import value accounts for about 80% and export value accounts for about 60%.
3. The level of enterprise management and the concept of development have made a qualitative leap, and the quality of management and operation of enterprise management has been significantly improved. Enterprise leaders attach importance to the use of advanced equipment and advanced technology, the quality management of enterprises, the training and training of enterprise employees, and the construction of enterprise software strength. Enterprise management is changing from extensive management to refinement. The direction of fine management is developing.
(2) Problems: At present, the main problems in the development of the industry are that the industry is large but not strong, and the structural contradictions are prominent, which are mainly manifested in the following aspects:
1. Key components are heavily dependent on imports, and core technologies are subject to human constraints: in 2010, the industry imported 13.5 billion US dollars, exported 7 billion US dollars, and had a trade deficit of 6.5 billion US dollars. Core technologies such as automatic transmission and transmission of high-speed train are subject to a large number of imports. In 2010, gear imports amounted to 10.4 billion US dollars, with a deficit of 8 billion US dollars. Fasteners are big exporters, but the difference between import and export price is as high as 6-8 times.
2. The industrial structure is unreasonable, and the product quality gap is obvious: the overcapacity of middle and low-grade products, the inadequate capacity of high-grade products, the formation of low-level repeated construction, homogenization and vicious competition, according to preliminary statistics: high-grade products account for about 10%, middle-grade products account for about 50%, low-grade products account for about 40%. Industrial concentration is low, CR10 is about 30%.
The stability, consistency and reliability of product quality are different. The product life is short, which is generally 30-70% of that of similar products abroad. There is a considerable gap with the requirements of users. Production efficiency, energy consumption, material consumption, emissions, environmental protection and other disparities are very large.
3. Lack of advanced technical personnel and low level of equipment: lack of advanced innovative technical personnel and lack of industrial technical workers are common. At present, engineering and technical personnel account for 5-6% of the employees in the industry, while less than 2% of the front-line design and technological personnel. There are few high-grade equipment, many middle and low-grade equipment, and the proportion of high-grade equipment in Enterprises above the scale is about 1%. There are few numerical control equipment and more motor-driven electric equipment. There are more single-machine work and less automatic and intelligent production equipment. There are more manual spot checks and less on-line checks. There is a significant gap between the current level of special machines in this industry and that of foreign countries.
(3) Opportunities and challenges: the situation that basic parts lag behind the development of main engine has aroused great attention of the state. The high-end development of spare parts has become a strategic issue in the development of equipment manufacturing industry, and the development mode needs to be changed urgently. For this reason, the state has issued a series of policies and measures, such as the "Plan for the Revitalization and Implementation of Machinery Basic Parts Industry" and the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan for the Development of Machinery Basic Parts, Basic Manufacturing Technologies and Basic Materials", which require "breakthroughs in a number of key manufacturing technologies for basic parts and components, and the technological level of products reaches the international advanced level at the beginning of the 21st century". Create a good policy environment for the development of basic components.
Domestic market: General mechanical parts and components are important basic parts of industrial products. Government policies promote domestic demand. Automobiles, railways, highways, power generation, transmission and distribution, environmental protection and capital construction have developed substantially. There is still a broad demand space for general mechanical parts and components market. Due to the "global" purchasing of automobile parts and the "localization" strategy of multinational corporations, there will be a huge market demand for gear, fasteners, chains, springs, powder metallurgy, coupling brakes and so on.
Overseas markets: During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, the industry is facing changes in the domestic and international environment, and the structure of market demand will undergo significant changes. The slow recovery of international trade, while doing a good job of domestic sales, can not relax exports. At the same time, we should actively adjust the distribution of export areas and marketing proportions, marketing strategies, so as to make the export structure more reasonable. It is estimated that during the 12th Five-Year Plan period, the average export growth rate of industrial products will be about 10%.
The key parts of construction machinery are the foundation, support and restriction bottleneck of the development of construction machinery products. When the construction machinery develops to a certain stage, the high-tech research in the industry mainly concentrates on the key parts such as engine, hydraulic, transmission and control technology. Mastering and relying on high quality and distinctive key components has become a strategic way for manufacturers to seek "excellence".